Document Scans

By Jesse Acorn

On this page, I will link all of the documents that I have scanned (and in some cases, that others have scanned for me), including books, manuals, and schematics. All were apparently unavailable online from any other source at the time of scanning. I have especially focused on providing info about early electronic musical instruments—those of the vacuum-tube era. If you find these documents useful, please consider thanking me, or even donating a small amount to my PayPal (both via the email listed on my contact page), but there is no obligation to do so.


  • The Electronic Musical Instrument Manual, 3rd Edition by Alan Douglas (1957) — British title with especially good provision of theory and design principles. Several noteworthy oscillator, divider, keyer, multiplier, and filter circuits are described; also rotary and vibrating mechanical generators, echo chambers, amplifiers, speaker cabinets, and so on. Some commercial products are covered in varying detail, including the Theremin, Trautonium, Hammond Solovox and Novachord, Clavioline, Bode Melochord, O. Vierling's Electrochord, and organs from A.W.B., Allen, Baldwin, Compton Electrone, Connsonata, Constant-Martin, Coupleux-Givelet, Hammond (tonewheel and chord), Minshall, Welte, and Wurlitzer. Written in an especially formal and elaborate English style, sometimes wonderful, yet sometimes frustrating in having verbosity and lacking specifics. Five editions were published between 1949 and 1968, with few significant changes between them.
  • Electronic Musical Instruments by S.K. Lewer (1948) — A British title featuring detailed descriptions of early electronic instruments, including the Trautonium, Theremin, Hammond Novachord, Compton Electrone, Everett Orgatron (electrostatic reed organ) and Pianotron (electrostatic piano), Maurice K. Bretzfelder's "Electone" (electrostatic piano), and more. General principles are discussed in detail. Various design ideas are mentioned that may never have seen commerical application. A multi-head tape echo using steel tape is described, like the Blatterphone and Marconi-Stille recorders!
  • Electronic Musical Instruments, 1st Edition by Richard H. Dorf (1954) — A true American classic. Begins with a good discussion of the nature of music and the properties and requirements of instruments. Products from these companies are described in detail (with specific models noted where applicable): Allen; Baldwin 5; Connsonata 2C and Connsonette; Hammond Chord S, Organ, and Solovox L; Lowrey Organo; Minshall E, H, and J; and Wurlitzer 44. Discussed in lesser detail are the Compton Electrone, Constant Martin Martinette, Ondes Martenot, and Theremin (including the original RCA schematic). The Stroboconn tuner is detailed. Plenty of info on constructing instruments is provided, including full plans for Dorf's own "Thyratone" and "Electronorgan" designs; the former is a monophonic solo instrument, and the latter a full-sized tube organ in pipe tradition. Lastly, electron-tube tone generator circuits, non-tube generators, and tone shaping are discussed, followed by relevant patents and bibliography.
  • Electronic Musical Instruments, 2nd Edition by Richard H. Dorf (1958) — Mostly the same as the first edition, except the following: rewritten and shorter Minshall section discussing models L and LC; rewritten and longer Conn section (dropping the "-sonata"), discussing the "Artist" series 700; new sections on Kinsman and Thomas organs in the "Other Electronic Instruments" chapter; minor revisions to "Installing and Servicing" chapter; and Electronorgan chapter removed and replaced with info about organ kits offered by Schober, which was Mr. Dorf's own company.
  • Electronic Musical Instruments, 3rd Edition by Richard H. Dorf (1968) — Third and final edition of this great American treatise, almost entirely different from preceding editions. The first seven chapters comprise perhaps the best primer on electronic organs ever written. Descriptions and schematics are given for many commercial instruments of the 1960s, including the Baldwin Orga-sonic 54A, Conn Classic 825, Gulbransen Rialto K, Hammond D-100, Lowrey Theatre Spinet H, Rodgers 32-B, Schober Theatre, Seeburg Carlyle Deluxe, Thomas Celebrity 800, and Wurlitzer 4140. These are mostly discrete transistor designs, with tubes used in some models, and extremely few integrated circuits.
  • Electronic Organ Handbook by H. Emerson Anderson (1960) — A detailed text featuring descriptions, schematics, and service tips for various 1950s American organs. These include the Baldwin 45H, 45C, and 45H2; Conn Rhapsody 600, 610, and 620; Gulbransen B, C, G, and B-2 ; Hammond M-3 and S-6; Kinsman A, B, C, and CP; Lowrey S, SS, and DS; Thomas G, GP, GS-1, H, J, and K; and Wurlitzer 4000. All except the Gulbransens are tube-based instruments. Leslie speakers—models 47 and 51C—are also covered, as well as the Conn Strobotuner.
  • Electronic Organs by Robert L. Eby (1953) — Perhaps the most extensive catalogue of early American electronic organs, delineating many models from Allen, Baldwin, Connsonata, Hammond, Minshall, and Wurlitzer. Custom-built full-size organs from Thomas (before they switched to cheap mass-market spinets) and Haygren are mentioned. Several organ-related products are briefly discussed, including the Lowrey Organo, Pedal-vox, Hammond Solovox, Haygren Electronic Harp, and Glenntone Speaker. Some discontinued instruments are briefly explained, including the Everett Orgatron, Hammond Novachord, Mastersonic, Vega-Vox, and Minshall-Estey organs. Also mentioned are foreign models such as the Compton Electrone, Welte Phototone, Constant Martin, and Coupleux-Givelet. Organ selection tips come near the end, and there is a useful glossary of electronic organ terms.
  • Elektronische Orgeln und ihr Selbstbau, 3. Auflage by Dr. Rainer H. Böhm (1966) — West German book, the title of which translates to Electronic Organs and Building Them Yourself, 3rd Edition, first published 1961. Yes, it was written by the same man responsible for the Dr. Böhm organs. Emphasis is mostly on general principles, plus several tube-based designs are described, along with methods for home construction. Scanned very well (including OCR processing) by Bernd from Cologne area, and hosted with his kind permission.
  • Simple Electronic Musical Instruments for the Constructor by Alan Douglas (1955) — Another British book, which describes various musical circuits in enough detail to build them. These include an "infinitely variable" tone generator (using a thyratron relaxation oscillator), a 5-octave monophonic keyboard (using a resistance-tuned "pulse generator" oscillator), a thyratron-based frequency-divider chain operable over several octaves, an "electronic accordion" that is basically a copy of the Hammond Chord Organ's chord division, various volume-envelope & control circuits, and it even mentions the "well-known Eccles-Jordan circuit" (Lowrey fans will know the significance of this being said in 1955!) Also described are a standalone pedal bass instrument and an early electric guitar.

Schematics & Manuals

For some of these documents, I have higher-quality scans available upon request. However, even without the higher-quality versions, you will find that all scans are quite clear and readable. Some processing could improve the contrast, and OCR processing could give easily searchable and copiable text. As well, for those documents that I did not make into a PDF (due to variations in page size), a PDF could be made; I will probably figure this out at some point.

If you notice any errors or have additional information that you would like to add, please contact me!

First Published: 12/30/2019